Wer den Dampf macht – Die Politik begreift die Herausforderungen der Industrie 4.0 nicht

Deutschland steht gut da, wenn es um die “Industrie 4.0“ geht. Davon konnte sich Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel auf einer Reise Ende Februar selbst einen Eindruck machen, als sie zwei Firmen in Bayern besuchte, die “Roboter und Steuerungstechnologien“ herstellen, wie es Christina Wirtz, stellvertretende Sprecherin der Bundesregierung, formulierte. In Europa setzt sich die Bundesregierung dafür ein, dass es einheitliche Standards für diese Technologie gibt, die von der auf dem Gebiet führenden Nation bestimmt werden: Deutschland. Hierzulande wird die Hardware der Zukunft entwickelt und teilweise auch gebaut.

Doch was für die Politik wie eine schön zu erzählende Geschichte klingt, ist nur die halbe Wahrheit. Wir stehen diesen Geräten ratlos gegenüber, wenn es nicht Betriebssysteme geben würde, die als Schnittstelle zwischen der Hardware und uns Nutzern fungieren würden. Die Software dafür wird aber nicht in Deutschland entwickelt. Sie entsteht an der Westküste der USA oder in China und ist der wohl wichtigste Faktor der “Industrie 4.0“. Die deutsche Denkweise basiert auf dem Besitz von Produktionsmitteln, Infrastruktur und der physischen Kontrolle über Prozesse. Dies wirkt im Zeitalter global miteinander kommunizierender Technik wie ein Anachronismus des Industriezeitalters.

Dabei zeigen uns die Unternehmen des Silicon Valley schon seit Jahren, wie die Zukunft funktionieren wird. “Wer sich beispielsweise das Geschäftsmodell von iTunes anschaut, wird verstehen, dass bei Apple der angeschlossene Service-Umsatz bis zum Achtfachen den Produktumsatz je iPhone-Kunde übersteigt“, schreibt die Smarter-Service-Initiative und benennt damit den entscheidenden Punkt: Daten. Der Automobilhersteller Daimler mag des Deutschen liebstes Kind immer noch produzieren, durch die Verwendung von Android als Betriebssystem für die Wagen weiß aber Google, was die Fahrer wollen und kann dafür smarte Dienste entwickeln. Und vielleicht noch etwas über Autos lernen.

Gemeinsame Standards sind wichtig, aber die Bundesregierung, und mit ihr die deutsche Industrie, verkennt dabei die Rolle von Software. “Man wartet, bis Google über die Unterhaltungselektronik ausliest, welche Fehler ein Auto hat – da ist in Deutschland keiner dran“, warnt der ehemalige IBM-Cheftechnologe Gunter Dueck. Die Dampfmaschinen der Zukunft zu entwickeln, ihnen stählerne Räder zu verpassen und sie auf hier produzierte Gleise zu setzen, wird nicht ausreichen, um auch die nächste industrielle Revolution zu meistern. Der Grund ist einfach, denn wenn – um im Bilde von der Eisenbahn zu bleiben – der alles antreibende Dampf in Südkorea, China oder dem Silicon Valley entwickelt wird, kann hier schnell alles zum Stillstand kommen.

Dieser Beitrag erschien zuerst in der fünften Ausgabe des Printmagazins “The Hundert“.

Image “Riverside Energy Center“ by Dual Freq (CC BY-SA 3.0)

90 Kommentare

Daniel Florian 2015-07-24 Antworten

Hey Tobias, ich teile deine Meinung nicht; bereits heute verfügen Siemens, Bosch usw. (also die großen Industrieanlagenhersteller und Zulieferer) über zehntausende von Software-Programmierern und wir haben mit SAP und Software AG ja auch darüber hinaus erhebliche Kompetenz im B2B-Bereich. Jedenfalls vermag ich keine Dominanz amerikanischer Hersteller zu erkennen …

Tobias Schwarz 2015-07-24 Antworten

Du musst meiner Meinung nach den Blickwinkel ändern, Daniel. Während es durchaus deutsche Software gibt, hat keine eine derartige Bedeutung wie die zwei Betriebssysteme Android und iOS. Durch die enorme Verbreitung sind sie attraktiv für die Wirtschaft, die ja wie beschrieben, trotz deiner korrekten Anmerkungen, genau auf diese Software setzt. Den Gedanken, keine kleinteiligen Software-Lösungen zu nehmen, kann ich sogar nachvollziehen. Der Fehler deutscher/europäischer Industrie-4.0-Politik ist der Irrglaube, dass Hardware wertvoller als Daten sind. Denn ohne selber Hardware produzieren lassen zu müssen, bekommen die Software-Firmen enorme Datensammlungen.

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